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Fruit and berry plants
With the onset of autumn, life in the garden does not freeze, but begins to slowly fade away, and until the snow falls, gardeners have a lot of work: after harvesting, the plants need to be prepared for wintering and by the beginning of the next growing season, since it is in the fall that the success of the next year's harvest is laid. The easier the garden can endure the winter, the more grateful it will respond to your concern for it. We have already written about how to prepare the garden for winter. This article will focus on pruning fruit bushes in the fall on the eve of winter.
Pruning fruit bushes
Berry bushes form the basis of the garden and are a source of vitamins and other useful substances for the human body. Growing fruit bushes is not extremely difficult, but it takes time, effort and special knowledge.
One of the most important points of care is the pruning of fruit shrubs, which should be carried out at the time specified by agricultural techniques, since correct pruning has a positive effect on the health, life span and yield of the crop, while untimely or improperly carried out pruning can cause serious, and in some cases and irreparable harm. Autumn pruning of the main fruit shrubs is carried out almost annually, and they usually start when the dormant period begins for the bush.
Each type of fruit shrub has its own terms - some require pruning in September, others require pruning in October or November, and the methods of this procedure are not the same for all fruit crops, but there are recommendations that are common to all shrubs:
- autumn pruning is done in areas where there are no severe and long frosts, otherwise the bark may freeze out at the site of the wound with the onset of winter, which can lead to the death of the bush;
- plants should not be cut at temperatures below -10 ºC, because at such a low temperature the wood becomes too fragile, the tissue of the cuts becomes loose, and the tools severely injure the branches;
- do not rush to cut the shrubs planted this year: it is quite possible that you made a mistake with the planting site and want to move the bush to another part of the garden in the spring - in a new place you will begin to form the crown of the bush;
- autumn pruning is used mostly for mature bushes and trees;
- be sure to process sections of thick branches (from 8 mm in diameter and more) with garden pitch;
- Sharp sharpened tools are used as tools for pruning garden shrubs - garden saws and pruning shears. Sometimes you have to work with an ax. Ladder may be needed.
Which shoots to cut depends on how many years the branches of one type or another bear fruit. For example, blackcurrant branches bear fruit for 5 years, therefore, branches older than five years must be removed, since they will no longer bear fruit, but will only take away strength and nutrition from younger and more promising shoots in terms of fruiting. There are two pruning methods: thinning, where the branches are cut at the very base, and pruning, by cutting only the top of the shoot. The best pruning time is a dormant period when sap flow has stopped.
When to trim
Regular (non-remontant) raspberries are best pruned immediately after fruiting, and pruning time depends on the raspberry varieties you grow in your garden - early-ripening bushes can be pruned even in summer once you have harvested. Bushes of remontant or late ripe varieties of raspberries are cut in the fall.
The lifespan of raspberry branches is two years. The shoots grow in the first year, and bear fruit in the second year. After fruiting, they gradually dry out, so there is no point in leaving them until spring. Autumn pruning of branches bearing fruit this year is carried out at the root. In order not to confuse a young shoot with an old one, keep in mind that the bark of the branches of the second year is darker than that of young shoots. By the way, one-year-old shoots are also not worth leaving, because the more shoots on the bush, the more modest the berry harvest will be, so leave no more than 6-8 strong shoots of the current year, which will yield next year, and cut the rest to the ground.
As for the remontant varieties, they bear fruit on the shoots of the first year, therefore, the autumn pruning of remontant raspberry bushes is complete - all branches are cut to the root and burned. If in your area the winters are not very snowy, then pruning in the fall is impractical, and it is better to transfer it to the spring, and on the eve of winter, simply tie the bushes with twine or twine and bend them to the ground - in this position, they will have quite a small amount of snow to winter well.
Autumn pruning of black currants can be carried out directly during harvesting, but it is better to carry out it when the currants drop their leaves and enter a dormant period. Red and white currants are cut only when the bushes have already dropped their leaves.
Pruning in the fall
Black currant bears fruit on both old and new shoots, but the older the branches become, the fewer berries they have on them, and the berries become smaller over time. A young bush of black currant is formed from 7-10 strong branches, the rest are cut out. Of the young shoots, 3-4 of the strongest are left, cutting off 4-5 upper buds from them. On adult bushes that have reached the age of six, a third of the old branches are pruned annually to the first strong bud, and dry branches are cut to the base. Do not let the growth grow at the roots - it will interfere with your caring for the bush.
After pruning, the bushes are spud to stimulate the growth of new shoots from the roots, with the strongest of which you will replace the aged branches next year. It is easy to distinguish old branches from young ones - their bark is darker.
Red and white currants bear fruit on old branches. Forming a fruitful bush, leave 2-3 young shoots on it annually, without shortening them, remove the rest. Over time, fruits cease to form on the top of the old branches, so they should be shortened before branching. If this does not help, remove them in the same way as dry, diseased, crooked or growing branches inside the bush.
When to prune gooseberries
Gooseberries tend to grow rapidly both in height and in width, so gooseberry branches are pruned annually after the leaves fall from the bushes.
Pruning gooseberry bushes primarily involves removing dry, crooked, thickening and old branches at the root, which reduce the yield of the bush. On a young bush, select the five strongest branches and shorten them to a height of 20-25 cm, and remove the rest of the growth. In older bushes, in addition to sanitary pruning, shortening of curved and downward shoots is carried out, and cut the young growth of the current season to the second or third strong bud, without too shortening the branches that you decide to leave bearing. Make sure that the overgrowth from the roots does not grow, remove it in time.
When to prune blackberries
When the blackberries are harvested, it is their turn to prune them. Early ripe varieties can be pruned back in the summer, immediately after picking berries; pruning of late ripe varieties is carried out in the fall.
How to trim
Since the blackberry is a close relative of the raspberry and bears fruit on the branches of the second year, those branches of the blackberry that have borne fruit this year are pruned at the root after harvest. Of the shoots of the current year, 6-8 of the most developed are left, the rest are removed, like all sick, twisted shoots growing inside the bush. The remaining shoots, if they have grown by more than a meter during the season, are cut off by 10-15 cm tops in order to stimulate the development of lateral buds and increase the yield of these shoots in the next year.
Timing of pruning blueberries
Blueberry fruiting occurs on last year's shoots. For the first couple of years, blueberries are not cut at all; in the third year, all fruit buds on the plant are removed. All pruning procedures are carried out after leaf fall.
Autumn pruning of bushes
In the fourth year after planting the plant in open ground, that is, when the plant is 5-6 years old, too low-growing branches are cut from the bush, and small growths are removed around the bush. Three years after planting a blueberry seedling in the garden, cut out all low, spreading branches annually, leaving only upright growths, thin out the middle of the bush, removing all weak, diseased and old branches.
Young shoots that do not have time to grow and get stronger before winter should also be removed. Ideally, only skeletal branches and strong shoots should be left on the bush, no more than five to six of annual shoots. Erect blueberry varieties should not be allowed to overgrow in the middle, and low-growing branches should be removed for spreading varieties.
When to prune honeysuckle
Many experts believe that honeysuckle does not need pruning until it is 5-7 years old. Honeysuckle bears fruit on annual shoots, but enters full fruiting only in the eighth year of life. It is best to prune honeysuckle in the fall, after the foliage has fallen, but do not delay this procedure until the first snow.
How to prune in the fall
Starting from the eighth year of life, an annual thinning and rejuvenating pruning of honeysuckle is carried out, during which aging and too thickened tops of the skeletal branches are removed, gradually increasing the role of replacement shoots growing in the middle part of the old skeletal branch as new bearing branches. Thinning of the peripheral zone is carried out by trimming. Make sure that the lower parts of the branches are not too exposed.
In general, on young bushes, slight thinning with shortening of the shoots prevails, and fully fruiting bushes are thinned moderately, also slightly shortening the shoots. Old bushes are subject to strong thinning. Leave one third of the fruiting branches without pruning at all, unless it is required for sanitary purposes. Over time - upon reaching the age of 8-10 - these branches are cut in turn "on a stump".
Other garden shrubs
What other fruit shrubs are pruned in the fall?
Pruning of blueberries is carried out mainly at the very beginning of spring, although pruning can also be done in the fall, when the blueberries have shed their leaves. Bushes that have reached 3-4 years of age are cut off, removing dried, damaged and diseased branches, leaving 6-8 developed branches as a skeleton. Branches older than 4 years are cut at a height of 20 cm from the ground, and the side shoots with buds are cut out completely. Bushes over fifteen years old, in order to rejuvenate the bush and increase its yield, are cut completely at a height of 20 cm from the surface of the earth.
Irga begin to cut off at the age of three, leaving only two or three strong shoots from the annual growth, and removing the rest. As a result, there should be about fifteen branches of different ages on the formed bush. Branches that have reached the age of six must be removed “on the ring”, leaving them to be replaced by developed shoots of basal growth.
Pruning rose hips
Rosehips are also best pruned in the fall. In adult bushes, all branches older than five years are cut out, although they can bear fruit for seven or eight years, however, the qualitative and quantitative indicators of their productivity are noticeably reduced, and they will consume food and water in the same quantities. Replacement of old pruned branches is formed from the strongest shoots of root growth.
Pruning plants, which are more vines than shrubs, are often also done in the fall. Actinidia, for example, needs pruning in November, when the foliage will fall off and the first severe frosts will pass. When pruning, remove all thin, weak, thickening crown and broken shoots. One or two vines, bearing fruit for three years, are cut to a powerful young liana located low on it.
We will tell you about the autumn pruning of ornamental shrubs in a separate chapter.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Berry bushes Gardening
The arrangement of the garden plot is not complete without fruit and berry bushes and trees. In a garden with a beautiful landscape design, there should be a place for a berry bush: raspberries, gooseberries, currants, sea buckthorn, honeysuckle, blackberries, blueberries, irgi. We offer you an overview of the most popular shrubs.
Surely you have heard about the wonderful properties of raspberries. It is difficult to imagine that raspberry bushes used to grow exclusively in forests. And only several centuries later they began to breed it in garden plots. Raspberries have a lot of advantages; they are simply necessary in the garden. Shrubs, depending on the variety, have red berries, less often yellow and purple-black.
Varieties of raspberries
- Traditional varieties of early, middle and late ripening. They adapt to any conditions. The disadvantage is low yield.
- Large-fruited are considered high-yielding. They allow growing berries up to 12 grams each.
- The most popular are repaired. They begin to bear fruit in the first year.
Fresh juicy raspberries
Berry bush requires regular watering, loosening and fertilization. Planting is done in spring or autumn. For the winter, the soil around the bush is insulated. In the spring it is necessary to trim and tie. All of the above measures will be useless if the shrub is not protected from disease.
Gooseberries are often called northern grapes or Russian cherry plums. An unpretentious crop gives good yields. Bushes feel great in lighted areas. They are afraid of shadows and waterlogging. You can find gooseberries in almost all regions. Bushes begin to bear fruit from the third year. The berries can be green, yellow, or reddish-brown. There are at least 1500 varieties
- European varieties are praised for their high taste. The disadvantage is the instability to disease and frost.
- American - are not afraid of drought, give a good harvest. In terms of size, the berries are inferior to European varieties.
- Hybrid - combines all the best. In garden plots, they are considered the most common.
Gooseberries do not tolerate acidic soils; it is recommended to add garden compost and lime to the planting trench. Bushes are planted in September. When planting in spring, the plant may die. Old and dry branches must be pruned. Collect gooseberries as they ripen. Due to the thorns on the branches, it is better to do this with gloves.
Gooseberries are more likely to suffer from powdery mildew - reduce the risk of the disease. Before bud break, spray the bushes with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or 5% solution of iron sulfate. Alternatively, a solution of Topaz, Skor or Gamair. Repeat the procedure before flowering using Tiovit Jet or Alirin-B, or use a solution of soda ash (50 g per 10 L of water).
If the gooseberry is chosen by the moth, follow the same procedures as for the currant.Spraying with Aliot, Kinmiks, Inta-Ts-M or Carbocin will also protect the "northern grapes" from the intrigues of sawflies, scale insects and glass cases.
Edible varieties of honeysuckle are popularly called "rejuvenating berries". The name did not appear by chance, since the berries contain an element of youth - selenium. Shrubs bloom beautifully, so they are often used for decorative purposes. However, to a greater extent, the berry is valued as a useful storehouse of vitamins.
- Long-fruited honeysuckle - medium-sized bushes are distinguished by the cylindrical shape of the berries.
- Hybrid varieties - bred by breeders by crossing berry varieties.
- Mid-late varieties - allow you to harvest honeysuckle until late autumn.
Bushes do not tolerate shade well. When choosing a place for landing, it is better to give preference to sunny places. Suitable for planting both in autumn and spring. In the spring, this must be done before the start of the growing season. Honeysuckle grows slowly so that the bush takes root and fructifies well, it is fed.
Bushes 6-8 years old require sanitary pruning. Dead branches must be removed... Young shoots do not need to be cut.
Honeysuckle berries on a bush
Perennial currant bushes can be found in garden plots and plantations. Berries are famous for their taste and useful properties. Bushes, unpretentious to care for, allow you to collect rich harvests. It is almost impossible to choose one single variety for the site. The best option would be to grow several species at once. Saplings adequately overcome the harsh cataclysms of nature in a cold winter.
Varieties of currants
- Black currants of early, medium and late ripening. Large-fruited varieties are considered the most popular.
- Red currant - differs in more weighty bunches. Bushes can grow without transplanting for up to 20 years.
- White currant - a variety in taste and benefits is not inferior to red.
- Hybrid varieties - bred by breeding gooseberry and currant varieties.
Produces a good harvest in well-drained soil. Cannot be planted in an acidic environment. Loosening of the soil is required during the growing season. Do not allow the soil to dry out; in dry weather, it is necessary to provide watering.
How to plant raspberries
On the prepared and fertilized site for planting in a row, not wide furrows or shallow holes are dug. With poor site preparation, planting pits are dug 35-40 cm deep and 45-55 cm in diameter, then manure and fertile non-acidic soil are laid on the bottom of the pit. In case of flooding of the site, planting is carried out on a hill (beds or mounds).
When planting, the roots of the seedling are distributed at the bottom of the pit and covered with soil around it so that the vegetative bud is located 1.5-3 cm below the level of the surface of the pit. After planting, it is necessary to water, loosen the soil and mulch with straw or humus around the plant.
To increase the yield in the early years, planting can be done with two seedlings in one hole or three rhizomes (cuttings).
When to plant raspberries
Planting seedlings can be done both in autumn and spring. When making a spring planting, it must be borne in mind that planting must be performed before the dissolution of growth buds.
How to prepare the soil for planting raspberries
It is advisable to prepare the soil before planting in advance. To do this, in the autumn period, all weeds are removed from the area allocated for planting, then manure and a complex of fertilizers are laid out, followed by digging onto a shovel bayonet.
Distance between bushes when planting
Raspberries are planted with an interval of 35-60 cm between bushes and 180-200 cm between rows. When planting blackberries 80-130 130 cm. With bush cultivation of culture, the placement of planting is 1.6 * 1.8 m. In varieties with a low shoot of educational ability (Kaliningrad, Kenby, Nagrada), planting is carried out more tightly. Rhizome and cuttings, if planted, are hardly laid out in a groove in a chain.
What number of bushes is it desirable to have on the site
First of all, this is determined by the wishes of the gardener and natural and climatic factors. In amateur gardens, the number of raspberry bushes ranges from 15 to 45. It is enough for blackberries to have 2-3 bushes.
Planting different varieties and their pollinators
Of course, growing different varieties of raspberries in the same area has positive qualities. In this case, bushes with an early ripening period are planted around the edges. For pollination, raspberries and blackberries do not need and can grow and bear fruit when planting one varietal species.
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