Detailed description of the variety of cherries Shokoladnitsa

Detailed description of the variety of cherries Shokoladnitsa



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This crop is successfully grown on almost all continents, the beautiful spreading trees bear so many fruits that one tree on the backyard is enough to satisfy the needs of a large family. It is important to choose the right variety so that it matches the climatic zoneso that the tree grows quickly, does not hurt and gives rich harvests annually. In this article you will get acquainted with a detailed description of the Shokoladnitsa cherry variety.

Description of cherry variety Shokoladnitsa

One of the most popular new varieties - Cherry Shokoladnitsa, so named for the bright and rich color of berries... The work of breeders has been crowned with success, this young cherry variety is becoming more and more popular, the tree grows quickly, low, which pleasantly distinguishes it from similar varieties, it does not get sick much. So Shokoladnitsa can be considered a promising cherry variety for the Central region of Russia.

Breeders from Orel, who worked at the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops, set themselves the task of creating a new species that would have the most important requirements of gardeners:

  • Good frost resistance
  • Low tree growth

It is no secret that these two indicators can be considered the most important for fruit crops. Even having a very large harvest on a tree, it is important to harvest and preserve it, but how to do it if you have to build ladders and devices during the ripening of the fruit. For the Central region of Russia, too harsh winters are not characteristic, but nevertheless, spring frosts often harm fruit trees - not only part of the harvest is lost, but the appearance of a lovingly grown tree is spoiled.

therefore the resulting hybrid Shokoladnitsa almost completely meets the requirements of gardeners - it is not particularly thermophilic, it has little illness... Two popular and favorite varieties of gardeners were taken as a basis - cherries Lyubskaya and Black, the new hybrid took all the best from its primary sources.

Fruit characteristics

The tree grows only up to two and a half meters in height, its crown resembles a pyramid turned upside down. The leaves are beautiful with a rich dark green color, pointed, not shiny. Each inflorescence consists of three white flowers.

The life span is decent - with good care, feeding and cutting off old branches, a tree can live for about twenty years. Fruits are round, on well-groomed trees they can reach 20 mm in diameter and weigh up to 3.5 g each... The pulp is juicy, tender, sweet and sour taste.

The tree does not require special care of itself, the Shokoladnitsa is unpretentious and gives a bountiful harvest that ripens earlier than on other varieties of cherries.

Table of useful substances in fruits

Useful materialAmount
Vitamin P1064.3 mg
Vitamin C10 mg and more
Anthocyanins395.4 mg
Ascorbic acid16,7 mg
Catechins378.1 mg

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

The main advantage of the Shokoladnitsa variety is its compactness., and the fact that it is also resistant to frost makes it indispensable in personal plots. Summer residents fell in love with this variety - it is not possible to grow many trees on six acres, but everyone needs a compact and high-yielding cherry. Of course, like any fruit cultivated tree, and the Chocolate Girl has its drawbacks - she is sick with insufficient care with moniliosis and coccomycosis.

And yet, compare the rate of fruit ripening and winter hardiness of different varieties of cherries before buying a tree:

VarietyChocolate girlRobinYouthBagryanka
Frost resistanthighaveragehighaverage
Fruit ripeningswiftswiftaverageswift
Yieldhighhighhighhigh
Disease susceptibilityMedium - moniliosis and coccomycosisMedium - moniliosis and coccomycosis, fungusMedium - moniliosis and coccomycosis, fungusMedium - moniliosis and coccomycosis, fungus
Self-pollinationYesnotYesnot

Even with the naked eye, you can see how much more profitable it is to plant a variety like Shokoladnitsa on the site - it is unpretentious, gives a good harvest and practically does not get sick.

Some gardeners believe that it is possible to increase the yield of a tree several times by planting at least one cherry of another variety next to it for cross-pollination, are offered such pollinators as the varieties Lyubskaya, Sklyanka, Vladimirskaya, Studencheskaya, Turgenevka. If there is enough space on your garden plot, you can use the advice of professionals, however, a lonely growing Chocolate Girl tree will bring a bountiful harvest.

Features of planting and care

Choose a place for planting a tree carefully, as well as the planting time. Some gardeners prefer to plant fruit trees "before winter", but this does not mean that it is impossible take advantage of the first warm days in early April, when it is best to plant fruit trees... This is the time of the beginning of life, the time of the beginning of the movement of juices, the tree will take root better if you opt for a spring planting.

Choose a small seedling - up to 70 cm in height, young, pay attention to its root system - developed and powerful. The tree itself should not be damaged, the branches should be resilient and elastic... Age - about one and a half years, that's enough.

To get a good harvest, cherries need a lot of sun, the tree will prefer the windy side of the site, warm and unshaded.

If the soil on the site is heavy, take care of sand, peat in advance, be sure to check if there is any groundwater near or under the supposed hole. Cherries do not tolerate excess moisture, a tree planted in acidic soil with poor drainage will die.

Remove the soil from the hole, the bottom layer must be specially prepared - it will be a mixture of soil with ash and humus, after which a little superphosphate and calcium chloride should be added to the composition. Such the hole is best formed in the fall in order to plant with the beginning of the movement of juices in the spring.

How to plant cherries correctly

  • Let's start with the fact that you need a stake, the diameter of the device is up to 8 cm, drive it into the ground and around make markings along a radius of about 30 cm, the depth of the hole is about 70 cm.
  • In the finished hole pour the prepared mixture soil, ash and groundbait.
  • Spread out the root ball, try not to damage the tender young roots.
  • Place a stake next to the seedling, with a tree height of about 70 m, the stake should be higher - about a meter.
  • Tie the seedling to the stake with paper string, do not use plastic ropes - they will injure the tender bark of a young tree
  • Position the seedling so that its neck is above the ground - about 3-4 cm
  • Fill the hole
  • Compact the earth around the trunk
  • Water the tree quite abundant - a bucket for one seedling
  • After watering, be sure to promulgate the planting circle, the thickness of the mulch layer, consisting of a mixture of sawdust and humus, should be about 5 cm.

The main work is finished, but this does not mean that you do not need to take care of the tree more. While the seedling is young, try at least loosen the soil around the trunk once a weekso that air can reach the growing roots, such a procedure is required after watering. Weeds will not appear on the area treated in this way.

Do not overdo it with watering. The tree needs water during flowering and ripening of berries - this is May and June, the rest of the time you can rely on the weather.

But in May and June it is worth spending about five buckets of water for each tree, the harvest will be richer.

Learning to prune a tree

You need to remove unnecessary branches and form a crown annually. Pruning is done before bud break... After cutting off the branches, treat the stump with a garden pitch. Form the crown pyramidal. Be sure to remove dry and frozen branches.

A few words about winter hardiness - Shokoladnitsa is adapted to the Central zone of Russia, but in severe winters (if meteorologists predict a cold period for you), you can insulate the trunk with spruce paws - they will save the bark of a young tree from rats and mice.

Growing conditions

For feeding fruit trees, mineral and nitrogen fertilizers are used. Mullein and humus are great. You need to feed twice a year - in the spring you will need superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, in the fall - lime, potassium and phosphorus... Do not forget about the mullein - in the spring after flowering and again after a couple of weeks.

Diseases and pests

It's unpleasant when leaves with brown-red spots appear on the tree - this is a sign of coccomycosis... Any disease can be predicted and prevented - before blooming the first leaves, you need to spray the tree with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. When the cherry blossoms - use the preparation "Skor", after flowering - a solution of copper oxychloride.

If you find the first signs of moniliosis - fungus on the branches and bark of the tree, then remove and burn all affected areas, be sure to treat the tree with copper sulfate.

It is best to fight aphids on fruit trees with a 3% nitrafen solution or intavirIf there are a lot of insects, do not forget to clear the ground from fallen insects after processing the tree.

Harvesting and storage

Cherry Shokoladnitsa early, you will see the first berries on the tree 3 years after planting, they ripen by mid-July. With good care, up to 15 kg of berries can be harvested from one tree.

It is best to eat fresh cherries, but skilled housewives will make compote, wine, liqueurs from berries, and make jam.

Features of this variety

The tree is low, the crown is pyramidal, the leaf shape is pointed. Berries up to 3 mg, the tree is capable of producing up to 15 kg of fruit... A frost-resistant variety, bred for planting in the Central region of Russia, self-pollinates well. Cons - susceptibility to diseases of moniliosis and coccomycosis.

Gardeners reviews

How gardeners say about the cherry Shokoladnitsa

Petrov Mikhail, experienced gardener - The variety is young and very promising. To increase the yield, it is proposed to plant nearby varieties Lyubskaya, Sklyanka, Vladimirskaya, Studencheskaya, Turgenevka.

Starova Veronika, gardener - Fruits are juicy, sweet and sour, stored well, you can make many preparations for the winter from them.

Mikhailova Irina - An excellent variety, so many berries, it begins to bear fruit early, we collect it in buckets. And it lies well, I advise everyone.

Conclusion

There is always a place for fruit trees in the garden - for apple, pear, cherry. A small area in gardening associations becomes a headache for owners - it is impossible to plant too many trees, therefore compact varieties are selected that can provide a rich harvest. Cherry Shokoladnitsa fully meets all the requirements - bountiful harvest, longevity, early maturity, large, juicy berries.


Cherry variety Shokoladnitsa: photo and description, reviews of summer residents

Shokoladnitsa is the result of a successful selection of domestic researchers. The variety is moderately resistant to frost, drought, grows in the form of a low, spreading tree, bears fruit abundantly with large maroon sweet berries. Cherry Shokoladnitsa, a description of the variety, photos and reviews of which are collected in the material, has not lost its popularity among gardeners for many years. For successful cultivation, it is recommended to pay attention to the condition of the seedling, the method of planting and the prevention of fungal diseases.

  1. Description
  2. Features and main characteristics
  3. Recommended growing regions, hardiness
  4. Taste qualities
  5. Pollination
  6. Yield
  7. Disease and pest resistance
  8. Advantages and disadvantages
  9. Planting and leaving
  10. Sapling selection
  11. Landing algorithm
  12. Testimonials

Description of the variety

The chocolate bar belongs to a dwarf species with a maximum tree height of 2 to 2.5 meters.

The stem (stem) bark has a brown or brownish-gray tint. The crown is of medium density with raised branches. The top has a blunt end, so when viewed, it looks like an inverted triangle.

Characteristic features of the variety:

  • Straight shoots covered with brown bark with a grayish coating. On them, kidneys are formed, which have a conical shape and a length of up to 4 mm, which are tightly pressed against the branches.
  • Foliage formed from the buds, it is characterized by a light shade below and dark green above. The surface of the leaves is matte, the shape is regular oval. The apex is obtuse, the base is slightly sharp.
    The peculiarity is the double serration of the edge (there are smaller elements on the main teeth). The average length of the petiole is 1 cm 5 mm.
  • Petals free on white flowers. One inflorescence contains about 3 flowers, which indicates a high yield. Serrated sepals are located on the calyx.
  • Berries weigh 3-4 grams, have an average size of 18 x 16 cm. The shape of the fruit is wide, flattened and round with a yellow stone inside (its mass is not more than 10% of the total weight).
    The ripe color is a rich dark burgundy, at the last stage of ripening it turns into black colors.
  • Peduncle differs in length from 32 to 36 mm. The pulp has an average density, due to which it is easily separated from the stone, the shade is dark red.


This variety is easy to care for and yields high yields. Designed for landing in the Central region of Russia. Prefers a warm climate, neutral, slightly acidic, nutritious soils. The occurrence of groundwater at a depth of 1.5 m in the place where the tree grows negatively affects its growth and fruiting. Resistant to frost and prolonged drought. It can do without watering for a long time. It does not tolerate waterlogging and shading; direct sunlight is needed for good growth and development of the tree.

The crop is planted in April or September. Since Shokoladnitsa is warm and light-requiring, for planting, you should choose places well-lit by the sun on the southern side of the garden plot. In shaded areas, there will be no large harvest.

For seedlings, prepare a planting pit 60 cm deep and 70 cm in diameter. Humus, superphosphate, ash and potassium chloride are added to the dug soil. Fertilized soil is poured at the bottom of the pit. After that, a seedling is placed in it, the roots are covered with soil and the trunk circle is compacted. Watering is best done with soft, settled water. After watering and soil subsidence, the root collar should be at ground level. The trunk circle is mulched with sawdust and humus.

Plant care consists in timely and regular watering, loosening, weeding and fertilizing the soil. Pruning of dry and damaged branches is done in early spring 20-27 days before the buds swell. Abundant watering is required during flowering and fruit ripening. During this period, 3-4 buckets of water are poured under each bush. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the spring, potash and phosphorus fertilizers in the fall. Mineral fertilizers and mullein infusion are added during the growing season.

Cherry varieties Shokoladnitsa prone to coccomycosis and moniliosis. In winter, the trunk can be damaged by rodents, so the tree should be wrapped for this period.


How to care

After planting, young cherries need regular loosening of the soil, watering in the absence of precipitation and the removal of all weeds.

Cherry, which has entered into fruiting, reacts sharply to the lack of mineral and organic fertilizers. Varietal plants especially need nitrogen and potassium supplements, less phosphorus.

If this is not possible, then it is enough to apply every spring 6-7 kg of rotted manure under one adult tree and 20 g of phosphorus and potash fertilizer. In early spring, even in the snow, you can scatter 50 g of ammonium nitrate under a tree.

Forming and sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow and budding. In autumn, sanitary pruning is carried out, all plant debris is removed from under the tree. Trees of this variety overwinter without shelter.

However, before frost, it is advisable to dig up the space under the cherries to a depth of 12-15 cm. Lay spruce branches, and whitewash the trunks and large branches. In addition to care, the plant must be protected from diseases and pests.


Description and characteristics of the variety

The main task of the breeders was to obtain frost-resistant, undersized cherries, Shokoladnitsa meets these parameters, and she also adopted the best qualities of her ancestors. Winters in the central regions of Russia cannot be called too harsh, but late spring frosts are observed here almost every year. The hybrid does not suffer much from a short-term drop in temperature, even during the flowering period.

Cherry Shokoladnitsa enters the fruiting stage at 4–5 years, the ripening period is average, flowering occurs in the first ten days of May, the harvest falls in mid-July. The life span is 15–20 years. The tree is compact and neat, bushy with a back-pyramidal, medium-dense crown, grows very quickly, the maximum height is 2.5 m. The bark is brown, the shoots are straight with a slight gray tinge. Leaves of the usual type, medium in size, dark green, matte. Umbellate inflorescences, consist of 2-3 flowers with white petals.

The hybrid is very unpretentious, but if you do not neglect the care, the trees will live longer and will give bountiful harvests every year.

Cherries are tied on last year's branches. Fruits are flat-round, up to 3.5 g and about 20 mm in diameter. The skin is dense, the pulp is tender, juicy, sour-sweet (sugar 12.4%, acid 1.6%). The cherries are almost black, the juice is maroon. The bone is small, easily separated. Tasting score 4, 6–5 points, the hybrid is universal in use. Fruiting is abundant, up to 15 kg of harvest is harvested from one tree.

The main advantages of Shokoladnitsa:

  • it is easy to pick berries from a compact tree
  • slightly extended ripening period
  • marketability, excellent taste and versatility
  • fruits tolerate transportation well, they can be stored in the refrigerator for about 10 days
  • unpretentiousness
  • immunity to frost, the hybrid is successfully grown in the North-West and beyond the Urals
  • drought tolerance
  • stable yield
  • long life of the tree.

The hybrid is partially self-fertile, there will be more berries if you plant another cherry nearby for cross-pollination, for example, Turgenevka, Lyubskaya, Vladimirskaya, Sklyanka, Griot or Studencheskaya. The main disadvantage of Shokoladnitsa is weak resistance to moniliosis and coccomycosis, regular prophylaxis is required, and in the years of epidemics - comprehensive protection. Pest infestation is extremely rare, but birds can be dangerous.


Reviews cherry Shokoladnitsa

The chocolate girl is self-fertile, which is a plus for her, of course. But the taste of the cherries themselves is not perfect there, and even a big minus. IMHO she is susceptible to the main cherry sores - coccomycosis and moniliosis.

mooch

I still have a small tree, for the first time it has borne fruit. But close to it the pollinator did not seem to be noticed. The closest one is a neighbor's felt cherry, but it does not pollinate ordinary cherries. So either the self-fertile, or the second young cherry blossomed imperceptibly next to the chocolate maker.

Starche-05

My Shokoladnitsa is about 10 years old. She is now about 1.20-1.30 years old. But in the second year of her life on our site, the top of her head was accidentally demolished, it grew from the side branches. I thought that was why she was so low, growing in a bush. There are almost no berries, a couple of handfuls, but sweet. My cherries, most likely, are not pollinated, as they bloom later, when they have almost faded.

Celica, Moscow

We believe that the only drawback is poor resistance to coccomycosis and moniliosis. This is the main disadvantage, since these diseases are now ubiquitous. And the yield of Shokoladnitsa is low - the berries are large, but there are few of them.

Irena

Cherry Shokoladnitsa is an ambiguous variety. Its advantages are the excellent quality of marketable products and winter hardiness. However, the relatively moderate yield and susceptibility to fungal diseases confuse some gardeners. Those who are not averse to working hard and protecting trees from disease will receive large and juicy berries as a reward.


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